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2. Microbial toxins in fermented foods: health implications and analytical techniques for detection 【發布日期:2022-11-30】 發布單位:

Microbial toxins in fermented foods: health implications and analytical techniques for detection

Khadijah Fayyaz a, Asad Nawaz b, Amin N. Olaimat c, Kashif Akram d, Umar Farooq e, Mehreen Fatima a, Shahida Anusha Siddiqui f,g, Insha Shakeel Rana a, Mahnoor a, Hafiz Muhammad Shahbaz a,*

a Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan

b Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Microbiome Engineering, Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China

c Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, 13133, Jordan

d Department of Food Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, 63080, Pakistan

e Department of Food Science and Technology, MNS University of Agriculture, Multan, 60000, Pakistan

f German Institute of Food Technologies (DIL e.V.), Prof.-von-Klitzing-Str. 7, 49610, Quakenbrück, Germany

g Technical University of Munich Campus Straubing for Biotechnology and Sustainability, Essigberg 3, 94315 Straubing, Germany

Recently, demand for fermented foods has increased due to their improved nutritional value, taste, and health-promoting properties. Worldwide consumption of these products is increasing. Fermented foods are generally safe for human consumption. However, some toxins, primarily biogenic amines (putrescine, phenylethylamine, histamine, tyramine, and cadaverine), mycotoxins (fumonisins, aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and trichothecenes), and bacterial toxins (endotoxins, enterotoxins, and emetic toxins) can be produced as a result of using an inappropriate starter culture, processing conditions, and improper storage. These toxins can cause a multitude of foodborne illnesses and can lead to cardiovascular aberration and adverse gastrointestinal symptoms. Analytical techniques are in use for the detection of toxins in fermented foods for monitoring and control purposes. These include culture, chromatographic, immunoassays, and nano sensor-based techniques. These detection techniques can be used during the production process and along the food chain. On an industrial scale, HPLC is widely used for sensitive quantification of toxins in fermented foods. Recently, biosensor and nano sensor-based techniques have gained popularity due to accuracy, time efficiency, and simultaneous detection of multiple toxins. Other strategic methods being investigated for the removal of toxins from fermented foods include the use of specific starter cultures for bio-preservation, aflatoxin-binding, and biogenic aminedegradation agents that may help to appropriately manage the food safety concerns associated with fermented foods.

Keywords: Fermented food, HPLC, Nanosenors, PCR, Toxin

https://doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.3431

(https://www.jfda-online.com/journal/vol30/iss4/3/)
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